AT&T held a monopoly on all communications over phone lines, and they envisioned the future of communication as the picturephone. This is a fantasy product that was shown at the New York world's fair in 1964 and still doesn't exist as it was described.

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A high-speed satellite internet network interface is created between MIT and a PDP-6 by Bob Metcalfe. The interface is extremely high-speed, about 100 kB per second, and it runs for over 12 years without service. Metcalfe then goes on to build an ARPANET interface for Xerox called the MAXC. At the same time DEC announces the Unibus...

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By the beginning of the year, more than 200 computers in dozens of institutions have been connected within CSNET, but we are a long way from hunting down Internet providers by zip code. BITNET, another startup community, is based on protocols which include file transfer via e-mail as an alternative to by the FTP procedure from the ARPA...


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The 1990's

The Internet becomes such a component of the computing establishment that the professional society forms to steer it returning. The Internet Contemporary society (ISOC), with Vint Cerf in addition to Bob Kahn among its founders, validates the coming old of inter-networking and its pervasive role inside lives of pros in developed nations around the world. The IAB and its supporting committees become component of ISOC and it is closing in on the time when you can actually look for Internet Providers all over the U.S.

The quantity of networks exceeds 7, 500 and the volume of computers connected travels 1, 000, 000. The MBONE for the first time carries audio in addition to video. The challenge towards telephone network’s dominance because the basis for interacting between people is viewed for the first time; the Internet isn't any longer just pertaining to machines to talk together.


Landweber’s estimate has many enthusiastic reviewers. On an NSF-sponsored workshop, the idea is revised in a way that both wins approval and opens up a whole new epoch for NSF itself. The revised proposal includes more universities. It proposes a three-tiered framework involving ARPANET, a TELENET-based process, and an e-mail only service called PhoneNet. Gateways connect the tiers in a seamless whole. This brings the price tag on a site within the reach from the smallest universities. Moreover, NSF agrees to handle CSNET for two years, then it will turn it to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), which is made up greater than 50 academic institutions.
The National Science Board approves the newest plan and funds it for five years with a cost of $5 million. Since the protocols for interconnecting the subnets regarding CSNET include TCP/IP, NSF becomes an early on supporter of the Internet.
NASA provides ARPANET nodes, as do many Department of energy (DOE) sites. Now several Federal agencies support the world wide web, and the number is growing.


Research by David Patterson with Berkeley and John Hennessy with Stanford promotes ‘reduced instruction set’ computing. IBM selects the disk operating-system DOS, developed by Microsoft, to use its planned PC.



By the beginning of the year, more than 200 computers in dozens of institutions have been connected within CSNET. BITNET, another startup community, is based on protocols which include file transfer via e-mail as an alternative to by the FTP procedure from the ARPA protocols.
The Internet Working Gang of DARPA publishes a plan for the transition of the entire network through the Network Control Protocol to the actual TCP/IP protocols developed since 1974 and also already in wide use (RFC 801).

On Berkeley, Bill Joy incorporates the newest TCP/IP suite into the next release from the Unix operating system. The first ‘portable’ computer is launched such as the Osborne, a 24-pound suitcase-sized unit.

The IBM PC is released in August 1981.

Meanwhile, Japan mounts a prosperous challenge to US chip designers by producing 64-kbit chips consequently inexpensively that U. S. competitors charge the chips will be ‘dumped’ on the U. Utes. market.


Time magazine names ‘the computer’ its ‘Man from the Year. ’ Cray Research announces plans to promote the Cray X-MP system as opposed to the Cray-1. At the other end from the scale, the IBM PC ‘clones’ commence appearing.

An NSF panel chaired because of the Courant Institute’s Peter Lax stories that U. S. scientists lack having access to supercomputers. It contains the testimony regarding University of Illinois astrophysicist Lewis Smarr that members of his / her discipline have been forced to visit Germany to use American-made supercomputers.

The during which ad hoc social networking systems have flourished has left TCP/IP as only 1 contender for the title regarding ‘standard. ’ Indeed, the International Organization for Standards (ISO) has written and is particularly pushing ahead with a ‘reference’ style of an interconnection standard called Open up Systems Interconnection (OSI) — witout a doubt adopted in preliminary form pertaining to interconnecting DEC equipment. But while OSI is a standard existing for the most part on paper, the combination of TCP/IP along with the local area networks created along with Ethernet technology are driving the expansion from the living Internet.
Drew Major and also Kyle Powell write Snipes, an action game to be played on PC’s over the actual network. They package the game like a ‘demo’ for a PC software program product from SuperSet Software, Inc. This is actually the beginning of Novell.

Digital Communications Associates introduces the primary coaxial cable interface for micro-to-mainframe sales and marketing communications thus enabling the eventual roll-out of rural internet services.

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